Science and Philosophy
Philosophers and theologians from throughout history.
Abu al-Ghazzali (born 1058, died 1111)
Iranian jurist and theologian.
- One of the founding figures of Sufism (Islamic mysticism)
Albertus Magnus (born 1193, died 1280)
German theologian and scholastic philosopher.
- Attempted to reconcile Christian doctrine with Aristotle''s teachings
Alfred North Whitehead (born 1861, died 1947)
English mathematician and philosopher.
- Wrote The Principles of Natural Knowledge
Aristotle (born -384, died -322)
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato and tutor to Alexander the Great.
- His philosophic and scientific system reigned supreme in Western thought until the late 17th century
Arthur Schopenhauer (born 1788, died 1860)
- Founder of Pessimism
Auguste Comte (born 1798, died 1857)
French mathematician and philosopher.
- Coined the term ''''sociology''''; founded Positivism
St. Augustine (born 354, died 430)
North African theologian and writer.
- Sought to fuse Platonic and Christian views of the universe; wrote Confessions
Averroes (born 1126, died 1198)
Spanish-born Arabic philosopher and physician.
- Wrote on a wide variety of subjects, including jurisprudence, medicine and astronomy, but is best known for his commentaries on Aristotle
Baruch Spinoza (born 1632, died 1677)
- Proponent of pantheism
Charles S. Peirce (born 1839, died 1914)
American mathematician and philosopher.
- Founder of Pragmatism
Confucius (K'ung Fu-tzu) (born -551, died -479)
- Established a system of principles and values that remain influential in East Asian society
Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (born 1870, died 1966)
- Introduced Zen Buddhism to the West
David Hume (born 1711, died 1776)
Scottish philosopher and historian.
- Deeply influenced later metaphysicists
Edmund Husserl (born 1859, died 1938)
- Founder of Phenomenology
Emanuel Swedenborg (born 1688, died 1772)
Swedish scientist, philosopher, mystic and religious writer.
- Abandoned his scientific career to devote himself to Biblical interpretation and recording his visions
Friedrich von Schelling (born 1775, died 1854)
German Idealist philosopher.
- Professor, lecturer and author of many books
Friedrich Nietzsche (born 1844, died 1900)
German moral philosopher.
- His theories had a strong influence on German attitudes during World War I and the Third Reich
Friedrich Schleiermacher (born 1768, died 1834)
- Considered the founder of modern Protestant theology
Georg W. Hegel (born 1770, died 1831)
- Founded the absolute Idealist philosophy known as Hegelianism
George E. Moore (born 1873, died 1958)
English Realist philosopher.
- Wrote Principia Ethica
George Berkeley (born 1685, died 1753)
Irish bishop, philosopher and scientist.
- An Empiricist, he believed that the essence of being was to perceive things and to be perceived by others
Giordano Bruno (died 1600)
- Champion of Copernican cosmology who was burned at the stake for this and other beliefs
Giovanni Vico (born 1668, died 1744)
- Attempted to describe laws common to the evolution of all societies
Henri Bergson (born 1859, died 1941)
- Wrote Matter and Memory
Herbert Spencer (born 1820, died 1903)
- One of the few modern thinkers to attempt to construct a system encompassing all known phenomena
Huldrych Zwingli (born 1484, died 1531)
Swiss religious reformer.
- Led the Protestant movement in Zurich
Jakob Böhme (born 1575, died 1624)
German philosopher and mystic.
- Believed in the necessity of evil as a complementary principle to goodness
James Mill (born 1773, died 1836)
Scottish historian and philosopher.
- Founder of philosophic radicalism
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (born 1712, died 1778)
French social philosopher.
- Wrote Discours sur les Arts et Sciences, which proposed that the savage state is superior to the civilized
Jeremy Bentham (born 1748, died 1832)
English jurist and philosopher.
- A Utilitarianist, he believed that governments should work for the ''''greatest happiness of the greatest number''''
Johann G. Herder (born 1744, died 1803)
German philosopher and Lutheran theologian.
- Leading figure of the Sturm und Drang (''''Storm and Stress'''') movement
Johann Fichte (born 1762, died 1814)
German philosopher and metaphysician.
- Exponent of transcendental idealism
John Dewey (born 1859, died 1952)
American philosopher and educator.
- Pragmatist philosopher and a leader of the progressive movement in American education
John Stuart Mill (born 1806, died 1873)
English philosopher and economist.
- Worked to apply his utilitarianism, idealism, and economic theories to improving social conditions
John Locke (born 1632, died 1704)
English philosopher and educator.
- Known as the father of English empiricism; wrote An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Josiah Royce (born 1855, died 1916)
- Developed a philosophy of idealism that emphasized individuality and will over intellect
Karl Jaspers (born 1883, died 1969)
German psychiatrist and Existentialist philosopher.
- Wrote Psychologie der Weltanschauungen (''''Psychology of World Views'''')
Karl Barth (born 1886, died 1968)
Swiss theologian and educator.
- Champion of dialectic theology
Kenneth Burke (born 1897, died 1993)
American philosophic and literary critic.
- Founder of New Criticism
Chinese philosopher of the fifth century B.C.
- Founded Taoism
Lucien Lévy-Bruhl (born 1857, died 1939)
French philosopher and author.
- Wrote La Mentalité primitive
Ludwig Wittgenstein (born 1889, died 1951)
Austrian-born English philosopher.
- Wrote Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
Moses Ben Maimon Ben Joseph (Maimonides) (born 1135, died 1204)
Spanish-born Jewish philosopher.
- Attempted to reconcile Rabbinic Judaism with Aristotelian philosophy
Martin Buber (born 1878, died 1965)
Austrian-Jewish religious scholar, philosopher, and writer.
- Proponent of Hasidism and Jewish culture
Martin Heidegger (born 1889, died 1976)
German Existentialist philosopher.
- Wrote Sein und Zeit (''''Being and Time'''')
Paul Tillich (born 1886, died 1965)
German-born American theologian and philosopher.
- Wrote The Courage to Be
Plato (died -347)
Greek philosopher. Disciple of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle.
- Founded the Academy in Athens; wrote The Republic
Reinhold Niebuhr (born 1892, died 1971)
American theologian who had a great influence on U.S. government policy.
- Wrote The Nature and Destiny of Man
Greek philosopher of the fifth century B.C.
- Socrates left no writings; his doctrines, the basis of idealistic philosophy, were recorded by his student Plato
Søren Kierkegaard (born 1813, died 1855)
- Founder of Existentialism
St. Thomas Aquinas (born 1225, died 1274)
Italian scholastic philosopher, writer and poet.
- Systematized Catholic theology in his Summa theologiae and Summa contra gentiles
Thomas Hobbes (born 1588, died 1679)
- Developed the theory of the social contract
William James (born 1842, died 1910)
American psychologist and philosopher.
- One of the founders of Pragmatism
William of Ockham
Fourteenth-century English scholastic philosopher.
- Excommunicated for questioning the infallibility of the pope and his authority in civil affairs
John Henry Cardinal Newman (born 1801, died 1890)
English theologian, essayist and novelist.
- Anglican leader of the Oxford movement who later became a Roman Catholic cardinal
Francis Bacon (born 1561, died 1626)
- Devised an inductive (rather than deductive) system of logic
Immanuel Kant (born 1724, died 1804)
German metaphysician and transcendental philosopher.
- Founder of critical philosophy
Noam Chomsky (born 1928)
Prominent American linguist and political activist
- Author of the landmark book Syntactic Structures, 1957, which is an investigation into language and universal grammar as a uniquely human faculty
Philosophers and theologians from throughout history.
Susanne K. Langer (born 1895, died 1985)
- Wrote Mind: An Essay on Human Feeling
Hypatia (died 415)
Alexandrian mathematician and philosopher. Murdered by fanatics instigated by the bishop of Alexandria.
- People from throughout the known world came to the University at Alexandria to hear her lectures
Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia (born 1646, died 1684)
Venetian scholar and composer. The first woman in the world to be awarded a doctoral degree.
- Awarded the Doctorate of Philosophy by the University of Padua, June 25, 1678
Agnes Arber (born 1879, died 1960)
English botanist and philosopher.
- Wrote The Manifold and the One
Hannah Arendt (born 1906, died 1975)
German-born American philosopher.
- Wrote The Life of the Mind
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