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Science and Philosophy


People who have made a name for themselves studying the production and distribution of goods.

  • Adam Smith (born 1723, died 1790)

    Scottish economist, author of The Wealth of Nations (1776).

    • Prophet of free-market economics
  • David Ricardo (born 1772, died 1823)

    English economist.

    • Founder of the classical school of economics
  • Frank W. Taussig (born 1859, died 1940)

    American economist and educator.

    • Wrote Wages and Capital
  • Friedrich Engels (born 1820, died 1895)

    German socialist.

    • Co-wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx
  • Gunnar Myrdal (born 1898, died 1987)

    Swedish economist.

    • Known for his work on the theory of money and studies of economic fluctuations
  • Henry George (born 1839, died 1897)

    American economist.

    • His ''''Our Land and Land Policy'''' declared that land values represent monopoly power
  • Irving Fisher (born 1867, died 1947)

    American economist.

    • Wrote The Purchasing Power of Money
  • James L. Laughlin (born 1850, died 1933)

    American political economist.

    • Helped establish the Federal Reserve System
  • John R. Commons (born 1862, died 1945)

    American economist and author.

    • Wrote The Distribution of Wealth
  • John Maynard Keynes (born 1883, died 1946)

    English economist; advocate of government intervention in the economy.

    • Editor of Economic Journal and author of many books
  • Joseph Schumpeter (born 1883, died 1950)

    German economist.

    • Wrote Business Cycles
  • Louis Blanc (born 1811, died 1882)

    French socialist.

    • Considered the founder of state socialism
  • Milton Friedman (born 1912)

    American economist. One of the foremost proponents of laissez-faire economic policy.

    • Wrote Capitalism and Freedom
  • Sidney J. Webb (born 1859, died 1947)

    English economist, socialist and statesman. A founder of the Fabian Society.

    • Wrote Socialism in England
  • Vilfredo Pareto (born 1848, died 1923)

    Economist and sociologist.

    • His theories rejected democracy and heavily influenced Italian Fascism
  • William Graham Sumner (born 1840, died 1910)

    American economist and sociologist.

    • Advocate of free trade and big business
  • Karl Marx (born 1818, died 1883)

    German political philosopher; founder of modern socialism.

    • Wrote the Communist Manifesto (with Friedrich Engels) and Das Kapital
  • John Kenneth Galbraith

    Canadian-American economist.

    • Leading liberal economist who was one of John F. Kennedy''s key economic advisers

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