These sciences are closely akin, as physicists and astronomers use mathematical models to describe the workings of the universe.

Alessandro Volta (born 1745, died 1827)
Italian physicist known for his pioneering research on electricity. The volt, an electrical unit, is named for him.
 Invented the voltaic pile and the electrophorus

Amedeo Avogadro (born 1776, died 1856)
Italian physicist.
 Known for Avogadro''s law: Gasses of equal volumes at the same temperature contain the same number of molecules

AndreMarie Ampère (born 1775, died 1836)
French physicist who gave his name to a unit that measures the intensity of an electrical current.
 Noted for his work in magnetism, electricity and electrodynamics

Pietro Angelo Secchi (born 1818, died 1878)
Italian astronomer.
 Performed spectroscopic studies of the sun and other stars

Bernhard Riemann (born 1826, died 1866)
German mathematician.
 Developed a nonEuclidean system of geometry

Camille Flammarion (born 1842, died 1925)
French astronomer.
 Founder of the French Astronomical Society

Karl Friedrich Gauss (born 1777, died 1855)
German mathematician and astronomer.
 Noted for his many contributions in pure and applied mathematics

Christian Johann Doppler (born 1803, died 1853)
Austrian physicist and mathematician.
 Noted for his observations on perceived differences in wave phenomena, now known as the Doppler effect

Daniel Bernoulli (born 1700, died 1782)
Swiss mathematician, anatomist, botanist, physicist and philosopher.

David Hilbert (born 1862, died 1943)
German mathematician.
 Known for his work on geometric and arithmetic axioms

Edmund Halley (born 1656, died 1742)
British astronomer.
 Known for his studies of comets, particularly his prediction of the return of the comet now known by his name

Edwin P. Hubble (born 1889, died 1953)
American astronomer for whom the Hubble Space Telescope was named.
 Discovered the existence of galaxies outside our own

Enrico Fermi (born 1901, died 1954)
Italianborn American physicist who studied quantum theory and atomic structure.
 First synthesized element 93, transuranium

Ernest Orlando Lawrence (born 1901, died 1958)
American physicist who invented the cyclotron.
 Founding director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley

Ernest Rutherford (born 1871, died 1937)
British physicist.
 Known for his work on atomic structure and radioactive decay

Gabriel Fahrenheit (born 1686, died 1736)
GermanDutch physicist.
 Developed the mercury thermometer and the temperature scale that bears his name

Galileo Galilei (born 1564, died 1642)
Italian astronomer, physicist and mathematician. Forced by the church to recant his support for Copernicus' theory that the planets orbit the sun.
 One of the first astronomers to use a telescope; discovered the moons of Jupiter

Galileo Ferraris (born 1847, died 1897)
Italian physicist and electrical engineer.
 Discovered the magnetic principle used in hydroelectric generators

Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli (born 1835, died 1910)
Italian astronomer.
 Discovered the asteroid Hesperia, and features on Mars which he thought were canals

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (born 1646, died 1716)
German philosopher and mathematician.
 Developed calculus at the same time as Isaac Newton

Heinrich Rudolph Hertz (born 1857, died 1894)
German physicist.
 Discovered that electricity, like light, travels in waves; led to the development of wireless communication

(Jules) Henri Poincaré (born 1851, died 1912)
French mathematician and physicist.
 Noted for his work on the electromagnetic theory of light

Hermann von Helmholtz (born 1821, died 1894)
German physicist and physiologist.
 One of the originators of the principle of the conservation of energy

Isaac Newton (born 1642, died 1727)
British mathematician and physicist.
 Formulated the basic laws of physics; invented differential calculus

James Clerk Maxwell (born 1831, died 1879)
Scottish physicist.
 Hypothesized that electricity and light are fundamentally similar

Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (born 1768, died 1830)
French mathematician and physicist.
 Noted for his work on heat transfer, which led him to the theory of the Fourier Series

Johannes Kepler (born 1571, died 1630)
German astronomer.
 Formulated the laws of planetary motion, including the fact that the planets travel in elliptical orbits

Josiah Willard Gibbs (born 1790, died 1861)
American mathematical physicist and philologist.
 Discovered the basic principles of physical chemistry

Leo Szilard (born 1898, died 1964)
HungarianAmerican physicist.
 Worked on chain reactions with Enrico Fermi

Leonhard Euler (born 1701, died 1783)
Swiss mathematician.
 Founded the calculus of variation; a pioneer of pure mathematics

LouisVictor de Broglie
French physicist who discovered the wave nature of electrons.
 Noted for his work on quantum theory
 Noted for his work on quantum theory

Luigi Galvani (born 1737, died 1798)
Italian physician and physicist.
 Best remembered for experiments in which he used electrical currents to make the legs of dead frogs twitch

Nicholas Copernicus (born 1473, died 1543)
Polish astronomer.
 Wrote De Revolutionibus Orbum Coelestium, which detailed his theory that the earth rotates daily and it and the other planets revolve around the sun

Percival Lowell (born 1855, died 1916)
American astronomer.
 Predicted the existence of Pluto based on mathematical calculations; wrote several works on Mars and its ''''canals''''

Pierre Simon de Laplace (born 1749, died 1827)
French astronomer and mathematician.
 Discovered several principles regarding the orbits of heavenly bodies

Pierre de Fermat (born 1601, died 1665)
French mathematician.
 Considered by some to be the inventor of differential calculus

J. Robert Oppenheimer (born 1904, died 1967)
American physicist.
 One of the key developers of the atomic bomb

Robert H. Goddard (born 1882, died 1945)
American physicist and rocketry pioneer.
 Built the first liquidfueled rocket

Walter H. Brattain (born 1902, died 1987)
American physicist who helped develop the transistor.
 Known for his work in solidstate physics

Wernher von Braun (born 1912, died 1977)
GermanAmerican rocket engineer.
 Helped develop the V2 rocket for Germany; later helped launch the first American satellite

William Herschel (born 1738, died 1822)
British astronomer.
 Discovered Uranus and the Martian polar caps

William Thomson Kelvin (born 1824, died 1907)
Scottish physicist and inventor.
 Devised the absolute temperature scale that bears his name; also invented many scientific instruments

William Crookes (born 1832, died 1919)
British physicist and chemist.

Blaise Pascal (born 1623, died 1662)
French scientist and philosopher.
 Mathematical prodigy as a child; carried out experiments on the equilibrium of fluids and barometric pressure

Michael Faraday (born 1791, died 1867)
English physicist and chemist.
 Made several important discoveries in electromagnetics

Harlow Shapley (born 1885, died 1972)
American astronomer.
 Developed a method for determining the size of stars

Tycho Brahe (born 1546, died 1601)
Danish astronomer.
 His accurate and detailed nakedeye observations aided Johannes Kepler in developing the laws of planetary motion

Clyde W. Tombaugh (born 1906, died 1997)
American astronomer.
 Discovered the planet Pluto in 1930

Paul Erdos (born 1913, died 1996)
Hungarianborn mathematician.
 One of the most influential and prolific mathematicians of the 20th century, with over 1500 published papers

Aryabhata (born 476)
Hindu mathematician and astronomer.
 Wrote Aryahitya, a mathematical discourse in verse couplets

Maarten Schmidt (born 1929)
DutchAmerican astronomer
 Identified the nature of Quasars in 1963.