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Science and Philosophy

National Medal of Science Winners

The President of the United States presents this medal to persons who have distinguished themselves in engineering or the physical, biological, mathematical, behavorial, or social sciences.

  • Gertrude Belle Elion (born 1918, died 1999)

    American pharmacologist who, with George Hitchings, developed several important drugs for the treatment of disease.

    • 1991 National Medal of Science winner
  • Rita Levi-Montalcini (born 1909)

    Italian-American neurologist who discovered a substance that stimulates the growth of nerve cells.

    • 1987 National Medal of Science winner
  • Rosalyn S. Yalow (born 1921)

    American physicist who developed a technique for measuring small concentrations of substances in the blood.

    • 1988 National Medal of Science winner
  • Barbara McClintock (born 1902, died 1992)

    American geneticist noted for her discovery of mobile genetic elements.

    • 1970 National Medal of Science winner
  • Elizabeth C. Crosby
    • 1979 National Medal of Science winner
  • Berta Vogel Scharrer (born 1906)

    German-American neuroscientist.

    • 1985 National Medal of Science winner
  • Joan A. Steitz
    • 1986 National Medal of Science winner
  • Anne Anastasi

    Psychologist.

    • 1987 National Medal of Science winner
  • Katherine Esau
    • 1989 National Medal of Science winner
  • Mildred S. Dresselhaus
    • 1990 National Medal of Science winner
  • Mary Ellen Avery
    • 1991 National Medal of Science winner
  • Luna B. Leopold
    • 1991 National Medal of Science winner
  • Eleanor J. Gibson

    Psychologist.

    • 1992 National Medal of Science winner
  • Maxine F. Singer
    • 1992 National Medal of Science winner
  • Vera C. Rubin
    • 1993 National Medal of Science winner
  • Salome G. Waelsch

    German-born American embryologist.

    • 1993 National Medal of Science winner
  • Elizabeth Neufeld
    • 1994 National Medal of Science winner
  • E. Margaret Burbidge

    English astronomer. First female director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory, 1972-73.

    • 1985 National Medal of Science winner
  • Mildred Cohn

    American chemist.

    • 1982 National Medal of Science winner
  • Isabella L. Karle

    American chemist.

    • 1995 National Medal of Science winner
  • Darleane Christian Hoffman (born 1926)

    Discovered Plutonium-244 in nature

    • 1997 National Medal of Science winner for Chemistry
  • Janet D. Rowley (born 1925)

    Leading researcher in chromosome abnormality and leukamia

    • 1998 National Medal of Science winner
  • Cathleen Synge Morawetz (born 1923)
    • 1998 National Medal of Science winner
  • Ruth Patrick
    • 1996 National Medal of Science winner
  • Margulis Lynn

    Professor of biological sciences

    • 1999 National Medal of Science winner
  • Susan Solomon

    Professor of chemistry

    • 1999 National Medal of Science winner

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