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Science and Philosophy

Winners of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine

This prize has been awarded annually since 1901. Winners are chosen by the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm.

  • Gertrude Belle Elion (born 1918, died 1999)

    American pharmacologist who, with George Hitchings, developed several important drugs for the treatment of disease.

    • 1988 Nobel Prize winner in Physiology/Medicine, with George Hitchings and James Black
  • Gerty T. Cori (born 1896, died 1957)

    Czech-born American physiologist who made important discoveries about carbohydrate metabolism.

    • 1947 Nobel Prize winner in Physiology/Medicine, with Carl Cori and Bernardo Houssay
  • Rita Levi-Montalcini (born 1909)

    Italian-American neurologist who discovered a substance that stimulates the growth of nerve cells.

    • 1986 Nobel Prize winner in Physiology/Medicine, with Stanley Cohen
  • Rosalyn S. Yalow (born 1921)

    American physicist who developed a technique for measuring small concentrations of substances in the blood.

    • 1977 Nobel Prize winner in Physiology/Medicine, with Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally
  • Barbara McClintock (born 1902, died 1992)

    American geneticist noted for her discovery of mobile genetic elements.

    • 1983 Nobel Prize winner in Physiology/Medicine
  • Christiane Nusslein-Volhard (born 1942)

    German physiologist known for her studies of how genes control the structural development of the body.

    • 1995 Nobel Prize winner in Physiology/Medicine, with Edward Lewis and Eric Wieschaus

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