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Leadership

Miscellaneous Political Leaders

An assortment of rulers, representatives, and other leaders from around the world.

  • Beatrice Webb (born 1858, died 1943)

    English socialist.

    • Along with her husband, Sidney James Webb, established a Socialist salon and provided intellectual leadership to the Labour party
  • Cleopatra VII (born -69, died -30)

    Queen of Egypt; lover of both Julius Caesar and Marc Antony.

    • Co-ruler of Egypt with her brother, Ptolemy XIII; patron of the arts and sciences
  • Wanda of Poland

    Queen of Poland in the 8th century.

    • Led her army in the fight to repel invaders
  • Zenobia Septimia

    Queen of Syria.

    • Third-century Palmyrian queen who led the fight against Roman invaders
  • Constance de Cezelli
    • Defended her town against the Spanish in 1590 and was named governor by Henry IV
  • Margaret of Denmark (born 1353, died 1412)

    Queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    • United Scandinavia under the Kalmar Union of 1397
  • Razia
    • Sultana of Delhi, 1236-40
  • Catherine the Great (born 1729, died 1796)

    German-born Empress of Russia, 1762-96.

    • Forced the abdication of her unpopular husband, Peter III, and took control; made Russia a European power for the first time
  • Christina of Sweden (born 1626, died 1654)

    Queen of Sweden, 1632-54.

    • Abdicated in favor of her cousin, Charles X Gustavus; later made two unsuccessful attempts to regain the throne
  • Louise Michel (born 1830, died 1905)

    French anarchist rebel.

    • A leading figure of the 1870 siege of Paris and the Paris Commune
  • Nancy Ward (born 1738, died 1824)
    • Woman warrior who sat on the Cherokee Council of Chiefs and acted as an ambassador and negotiator
  • Judith
    • Ruler of Abyssinia in the 10th century
  • Anna Ivanovna (born 1693, died 1740)

    Empress of Russia, 1730-40.

    • Elected as a figurehead by the supreme council, but got rid of the council and took control
  • Candace

    Queen of Ethiopia.

    • Empress and general of Kushite Ethiopia who halted a Greek invasion in 332 B.C.
  • Alice
    • Ruler of Antioch in the 12th century
  • Afua Koba
    • 19th century ruler of Asante
  • Agness de Dampierre
    • 13th-century ruler of Bourbon
  • Alexandra
    • Ruler of Judea in the 1st century B.C.
  • Alix of Vergy
    • Ruler of Burgundy in the 13th century
  • Amina Sarauniya Zazzua (born 1533, died 1610)

    Queen of Zazzua, a province of Negeria.

    • A great warrior-queen, she expanded Zazzua to its largest size
  • Anne of Austria (born 1601, died 1666)

    Queen regent of France, 1643-61.

    • Ruled as regent for her son, Louis XIV
  • Asa
    • Ruler of Norway in the 9th century
  • Beatrice
    • Ruler of Tuscany in the 11th century
  • Beatrix de Bourgogne
    • Ruler of Bourbon in the 13th century
  • Beatrix (born 1938)

    Queen of the Netherlands since 1980.

    • Daughter of Queen Juliana
  • Benazir Bhutto (born 1953)

    Prime Minister of Pakistan, 1988-90, 1993-95.

    • First woman to lead a Moslem nation in modern times
  • Berenice III and IV

    Egyptian princesses.

    • Rulers of Egypt in the 1st century B.C.
  • Betty Mae Jumper

    Native American leader.

    • Tribal Chairman of the Seminole and editor of the Seminole Tribune
  • Blanca
    • Ruler of Navarre in the 15th century
  • Caterina Sforza

    Italian noblewoman.

    • Ruler of the northern Italian cities of Forli and Imola in the 15th century
  • Charlotte

    Grand Duchess of Luxemburg, 1919-64.

    • In 1919, her people voted 3-to-1 to accept her as their monarch rather than set up a republic
  • Christine of France
    • Ruler of Savoy in the 17th century
  • Claudine
    • Ruler of Monaco in the 15th century
  • Cleopatra Thea

    Queen of Syria in the 2nd century B.C.

    • Co-ruled Mesopotamia with her son, and was later poisoned by him
  • Corazon Aquino (born 1932)

    President of the Philippines, 1986-.

    • Housewife who led a people''s revolution against dictator Ferdinand Marcos
  • Edith Cresson (born 1934)

    First female premier of France.

    • Premier of France, 1991-92
  • Elizabeth Petrovna (born 1709, died 1762)

    Empress of Russia, 1741-62. Daughter of Peter the Great.

    • Overthrew Anna Leopoldovna and took her place as regent for Ivan VI; founded the University of Moscow
  • Emma (born 1858, died 1934)

    Queen of the Netherlands, 1879-90.

    • Acted as regent for her daughter, Wilhelmina
  • Mary Eugenia Charles (born 1919)

    Formed the Dominica Freedom Party after the Labour Party passed legislation to limit dissent.

    • Prime minister of Dominica, 1980-95
  • Golda Meir (born 1898, died 1978)

    Israeli stateswoman; one of the 25 signers of Israel's Proclamation of Independence.

    • Prime minister of Israel, 1969-74
  • Hanna Suchocka (born 1946)

    Poland's first female prime minister.

    • Prime minister of Poland, 1992-93
  • Helen Lecapena
    • Ruler of the Byzantine Empire in the 10th century
  • Henriette de Cleves

    German duchess.

    • Ruler of Nevers in the 16th century
  • Hind al-Hirah
    • Ruler of Lakhm in the 6th century
  • Ide d'Alsace
    • Ruler of Boulogne in the 12th century
  • Indira Gandhi (born 1917, died 1984)

    Prime minister of India, 1966-77, 1979-84. Her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, and her son, Rajiv Gandhi, were also prime ministers.

    • First woman to be elected prime minister of India; assassinated in 1984
  • Irene
    • Ruler of the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century
  • Isabel Martinez de Peron (born 1931)

    Argentine political leader.

    • First female president of Argentina, 1974-76
  • Isabella I (born 1451, died 1504)

    Queen of Spain, 1474-1504.

    • Financed Columbus'' famous 1492 voyage
  • Isabella II (born 1830, died 1904)

    Queen of Spain, 1833-68.

    • Ruled over a country in political turmoil; abdicated in favor of her son, Alfonso XII
  • Jadwiga
    • Ruler of Poland in the 14th century
  • Jeanne d'Albret (born 1528, died 1572)

    Mother of Henry IV of France.

    • Queen of Navarre, 1562-72
  • Joanna I (born 1326, died 1382)

    Queen of Naples, 1343-82.

    • Had her first husband, Prince Andrew of Hungary, murdered
  • Joanna II (born 1371, died 1435)

    Queen of Naples, 1414-35.

    • Ruled during a time of great unrest
  • Johanna
    • Ruler of Belgium in the 13th century
  • Juana (born 1479, died 1555)

    Queen of Spain, 1504-06. Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella.

    • Went insane when her husband, Philip I, died
  • Julia Bernice
    • Ruler of southern Syria in the 1st century
  • Juliana (born 1909)

    Queen of the Netherlands, 1948-80.

    • Mother of Queen Beatrice
  • Leonora Telles
    • Ruler of Portugal in the 14th century
  • Liang
    • Ruler of China in the 2nd century
  • Lu Hou
    • Ruler of China in the 2nd century B.C.
  • Lucia
    • Ruler of Tuscany in the 13th century
  • Lucienne
    • Ruler of Antioch in the 13th century
  • Maham Anga
    • Ruler of the Mughal Empire in the 16th century
  • Makeda
    • Ruler of Axum in the 10th century B.C.
  • Margaret Thatcher (born 1929)

    First female, and longest-serving, prime minister of Great Britain. Nicknamed the ''Iron Lady.''

    • Prime minister of Great Britain, 1979-90
  • Margareta
    • Ruler of Flanders in the 12th century
  • Margaretha
    • Ruler of the Netherlands in the 13th century
  • Marguerite
    • Ruler of Blois in the 13th century
  • Maria Lea Pedini-Angelini
    • Co-Captain-regent of San Marino, 1981-
  • Mary Robinson (born 1944)

    Irish stateswoman.

    • President of Ireland, 1990-
  • Mathilde
    • Ruler of Nevers in the 10th century
  • Mei
    • Ruler of Cambodia in the 19th century
  • Min
    • Ruler of Korea in the 19th century
  • Sada Jaur
    • Ruler of Sukerchakais (Pakistan) in the 18th century
  • Susanne de Bourbon
    • Ruler of Bourbon in the 16th century
  • Tamara (born 1160, died 1212)

    Queen of Georgia, 1184-1212.

    • Raised this country on the border of Europe and Asia to the peak of its political power
  • Teresa of Castile
    • Ruler of Portugal in the 12th century
  • Thecla
    • Ruler of the Byzantine Empire in the 9th century
  • Theodora (born 980, died 1056)

    Empress of the Byzantine Empire, 1042-56.

    • Co-ruler with her sister Zoe and, later, Zoe''s husband Constantine IX; became sole ruler after Zoe''s death
  • Vittoria
    • Ruler of Urbino in the 17th century
  • Wilhelmina (born 1880, died 1962)

    Queen of the Netherlands, 1890-1948.

    • Came to the throne at age ten; after a long reign, abdicated in favor of her daughter Juliana
  • Wilma Mankiller (born 1945)

    Chief of the Cherokee Nation.

    • First female chief; author of Mankiller: A Chief and Her People
  • Yelena Glinskaya
    • Ruler of Russia in the 16th century
  • Yolanda
    • Ruler of Jerusalem in the 13th century
  • Yolande de Bourgogne (died 1219)

    Empress of the Byzantine Empire, 1217-19.

    • Succeeded to the throne on the death of her husband, Emperor Peter of Courtenay
  • Yuan Yu
    • Empress of China in the 11th century
  • Zoe (born 980, died 1050)

    Empress of the Byzantine Empire, 1028-50.

    • After deposing two husbands, became co-ruler with her sister Theodora; her third husband, Constantine IX, ruled jointly with the sisters
  • Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (born 1929)

    President of Nicaragua, 1990-.

    • First female president in Central America
  • Dona Beatrice (born 1662, died 1706)

    African leader.

    • Anti-colonialist leader of Kongo
  • Yaa Asantewa
    • African queen
  • Agatha Barbara (born 1923)

    President of Malta, 1982-87.

    • The second female president in Europe
  • Eva ''Evita'' Duarte Peron (born 1919, died 1952)

    Argentine political leader.

    • Former actress and singer who controlled much of the social-service sector of the government while her husband, Juan Peron, was in power
  • Ruth Perry
    • Chairman of Liberia, 1996-
  • Lidia Gueiler Tejada (born 1926)

    Caretaker president of Bolivia, 1979-80.

    • Ousted by a military coup
  • Vigdis Finnbogadottir (born 1930)

    President of Iceland, 1980-86.

    • First female president in Europe
  • Glorianna Ranocchini
    • Co-Captain-regent of San Marino in 1984, 1989-92
  • Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (born 1946)

    President of the Parliament of the German Democratic Republic, 1990.

    • Last East German head of state
  • Ertha Pascal Trouillot (born 1943)
    • Interim president of Haiti, 1990-91
  • Patricia Busignani
    • Co-Captain-regent of San Marino, 1993
  • Elizabeth Domitien

    The first female prime minister in Africa.

    • Prime minister of the Central Africa Republic, 1975-76
  • Maria de Lurdes Pintassilgo

    Prime minister of Portugal, 1975-80.

    • The second female prime minister in Europe
  • Gro Harlem Brundtland (born 1939)
    • Prime minister of Norway in 1981, 1986-89
  • Milka Planinc (born 1924)

    Yugoslavian stateswoman.

    • Prime minister of Yugoslavia, 1982-86
  • Khaleda Zia (born 1945)

    Prime minister of Bangladesh, 1991-96.

    • Her husband, President Ziaur Rahman, was assassinated while in office
  • Tansu Ciller (born 1946)

    Prime minister of Turkey, 1993-96.

    • One of the first women to lead a Moslem country
  • Sirimavo Bandaranaike (born 1916)

    Prime minister of Sri Lanka, 1960-65, 1970-77.

    • The world''s first female prime minister
  • Hasina Wajed (born 1947)
    • Prime minister of Bangladesh, 1996
  • Kazimiera Prunskiene (born 1943)
    • Prime minister of Lithuania, 1990-91
  • Reneta Indzhova
    • Interim prime minister of Bulgaria, 1994-95
  • Claudette Werleigh
    • Prime minister of Haiti, 1994-96
  • Chandrika Kumaratunge (born 1945)

    President of Sri Lanka.

    • Her prime minister is her mother, Sirimavo Bandaranaike
  • Nita Barrow (born 1916, died 1995)
    • Governor-general of Barbados, 1990-95
  • Minita Gordon (born 1930)
    • Governor-general of Belize, 1981-93
  • Catherine Tizard (born 1931)
    • Governor-general of New Zealand, 1990-96
  • Alexandra Kollontai (born 1872, died 1952)

    Russian communist leader and feminist activist.

    • As the only woman on Lenin''s Central Committee, fought for woman-friendly policies in the new Soviet Union
  • Rosa Luxemburg (born 1870, died 1919)

    Polish-German socialist and pacifist. Frequently imprisoned, she was eventually beaten and killed by the German police.

    • An important figure in the European socialist movement
  • Henrietta Szold (born 1860, died 1945)

    American Zionist and educator.

    • Founded Hadassah, the Women''s Zionist Organization of America, in 1912
  • Hojo Masako (born 1157, died 1225)

    Japanese political figure.

    • A political figure in the middle ages through whose schemes political power was transferred to her family
  • Lydia Lili'uokalani (born 1838, died 1917)

    Last reigning monarch of Hawaii, 1891-93.

    • Deposed by American troops in 1893; later placed under house arrest when she tried to regin the throne
  • Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit (born 1900, died 1990)

    Indian diplomat. Sister of Jawaharlal Nehru.

    • First female president of the United Nations, 1953-54
  • Simone Veil

    French stateswoman and diplomat. A survivor of Auschwitz.

    • First pfresident of the European Parliament
  • Ahilya Bai Holkar (died 1795)

    Hindu ruler known for her wisdom and generosity. She was so beloved that she was deified during her lifetime.

    • Ruler of the Holkar kingdom of India, 1767-95
  • Sarojini Naidu (born 1879, died 1949)

    Indian poet, feminist and politician. Known as ''the Nightingale of India.''

    • First female president of the Indian National Congress

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