The reigning kings and queens of England (to 1603) and the United Kingdom (since 1603).
Edmund the Magnificent (born 922, died 946)
King of England, 940-46.
- Succeeded his half-brother, Athelstan, to the throne and created a truce with the Danes
John (born 1167, died 1216)
King of England, 1199-1216.
- In 1215, John was forced by rebellious barons to sign the Magna Carta, which asserted that the king was not above the law and could not put aside the rights of the nobility without due process
Alfred the Great (born 849, died 899)
King of the West Saxons, 871-99.
- Famed for halting the Danish conquest of England and for promoting learning
Athelstan (born 895, died 940)
King of England, 937-940.
- Grandson of Alfred the Great, he established himself as king of the greater part of what is now England.
Edgar (born 944, died 975)
King of England, 959-975.
- Called ''''The Peaceful,'''' he allowed the Danes in the north a degree of self rule, pacified Northumbria, and ceded Lothia to Kenneth of Scotland to obtain his good will
Edmund Ironside (born 980, died 1016)
King of England, 1015-16.
- Son of Ethelred the Unready
Harold Harefoot (died 1040)
King of the English, 1035-40.
- Illegitimate son of Canute who claimed the crown over Canute''s legitimate son, Hardecanute
Edward the Confessor (born 1002, died 1066)
King of the English, 1043-66.
- Considered more monk than king, hence his nickname; built the first Westminster Abbey
Harold Godwinson (born 1022, died 1066)
King of the English (Jan. 6 - Oct. 14, 1066).
- Last King of the Anglo-Saxons, he succeeded Edward the Confessor only to be killed by an arrow a few months later in the Battle of Hastings
William I (born 1027, died 1087)
King of England, 1066-87.
- ''''William the Conqueror,'''' who led the Norman (French) conquest of Anglo-Saxon England
William II (born 1056, died 1100)
King of England, 1087-1100.
- Called ''''Rufus'''' because of his ruddy complexion
Henry I (born 1068, died 1135)
King of England, 1100-35.
- Son of William the Conqueror
Stephen (born 1097, died 1154)
King of England, 1135-54.
- Fought successfully against Empress Matilda of Germany, Henry I''s daughter, for the crown, but was later forced to acknowledge her son, Henry II, as king
Henry II (born 1133, died 1189)
King of England, 1154-89.
- First king from the house of Plantagenet; conquered the Welsh and southeastern Ireland
Henry III (born 1207, died 1272)
King of England, 1216-72.
- His preference for foreigners helped incite the rebellion known as the Baron''s War
Edward II (born 1284, died 1327)
King of England, 1307-27.
- The title character of a famous play by Elizabethan playwright and poet Christopher Marlowe
Edward III (born 1312, died 1377)
King of England, 1327-77.
- Son of Edward I, his reign is notable for the beginning of the 100 Years'' War against the French
Richard II (born 1367, died 1400)
King of England, 1377-99.
- Banished the Lancastrian Henry of Bolingbroke (later King Henry IV) and seized his property, but was then defeated by him, deposed by parliament, and murdered in prison
Henry IV (born 1367, died 1413)
King of England, 1399-1413.
- Known as Henry of Lancaster; banished by his cousin, Richard II, but returned to defeat him
Henry VI (born 1421, died 1471)
King of England, 1422-61 and 1470-71.
- The Wars of the Roses, between the houses of Lancaster and York, made his a very turbulent reign; deposed and imprisoned for several years, he regained the throne only to be recaptured and probably murdered
Edward IV (born 1442, died 1483)
King of England, 1461-70 and 1471-83.
- Overthrown during the Wars of the Roses in favor of Henry VI, but managed to regain the throne
Edward V (born 1470, died 1483)
King of England, April-June 1483.
- One of the Princes in the Tower -- held captive with his brother and allegedly murdered by his uncle, Richard III
Richard III (born 1452, died 1485)
King of England, 1483-85.
- Portrayed memorably by Shakespeare as a hunchbacked, thoroughly evil man who murdered his young nephews; today, a historical society is dedicated to clearing his name
Henry VII (born 1457, died 1509)
King of England, 1485-1509.
- First king of the house of Tudor, he lived in exile until 1485 when he defeated Richard III and claimed the throne
Henry VIII (born 1491, died 1547)
King of England, 1509-47.
- ''''Bluff King Hal'''' is known for beheading two of his six wives, as well as for making the Church of England independent of Rome
Edward VI (born 1537, died 1553)
King of England, 1547-53.
- Only son of King Henry VIII
James I (born 1566, died 1625)
King of Great Britain, 1603-25.
- Also reigned over Scotland as James VI and was one of England''s most learned kings
Charles I (born 1600, died 1649)
King of Great Britain and Ireland, 1625-49.
- Beheaded as a traitor and public enemy for ruling without Parliament and inciting civil war
Charles II (born 1630, died 1685)
King of Great Britain and Ireland, 1660-85.
- Known as the Merry Monarch
James II (born 1633, died 1701)
King of England, Scotland and Ireland, 1685-88.
- Unpopular king who lost the crown after attempting to restore power to the Roman Catholic church
William III (born 1650, died 1702)
King of England, Ireland and Scotland, 1689-1702.
- Prince of Orange and Stadholder of Holland who was invited to take the place of his hated father-in-law, James II, on the English throne; ruled jointly with his wife, Mary, until her death in 1694
George I (born 1660, died 1727)
King of Great Britain and Ireland, 1714-27.
- First king from the German house of Hanover; strengthened his position througth the 1717 Triple Alliance with France and Holland
George II (born 1683, died 1760)
King of Great Britain and Ireland, 1727-60.
- Unpopular due to his promotion of Hanoverian (German) interests over British interests
George III (born 1738, died 1820)
King of Great Britain and Ireland, 1760-1820.
- King of England during the American Revolution; in later life he became mentally deranged, and his son had to act as his regent
George IV (born 1762, died 1830)
King of Great Britain and Ireland, 1811-20.
- Unpopular with both his father, George III, and the public for his support of the Whigs and his extravagances and moral laxity
William IV (born 1765, died 1837)
King of Great Britain and Ireland, 1830-1837.
- Called ''''the Sailor-King'''' and ''''Silly Billy,'''' he was the last king to force a ministry onto an unwilling parliament
Edward VII (born 1841, died 1910)
King of England, 1901-10. Son of Queen Victoria.
- Known as ''''the Peacemaker''''
George V (born 1865, died 1936)
King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Emperor of India, 1910-36.
- Reign was marked by the First World War and the Great Depression
Edward VIII (born 1894, died 1972)
King of England, 1936.
- Abdicated after less than a year on the throne to marry Mrs. Simpson, a divorced American who was considered unacceptable as queen
George VI (born 1895, died 1952)
King of Great Britain, 1936-52, and Emperor of India, 1936-48.
- Known for his bravery in World War I; became king upon the abdication of his brother Edward VIII
Richard I (born 1157, died 1199)
King of England, 1189-99.
- Called ''''the Lion-Hearted,'''' he spent less than a year of his reign in England, and the rest on crusades
Henry V (born 1387, died 1422)
King of England, 1413-22.
- Famed for his victory over the French at the battle of Agincourt, where the English forces were severely outnumbered
Edward I (born 1239, died 1307)
King of England, 1275-1307.
- Conquered Wales and Scotland
Legendary sixth-century British monarch.
- If he ever actually existed, Arthur was likely a Welsh warrior-chieftan, rather than the chivalrous ruler of all Britain described in tales since the Middle Ages
Prince Philip of England (born 1921)
Duke of Edinburgh
- Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich, husband of Queen Elizabeth II of England
The reigning kings and queens of England (to 1603) and the United Kingdom (since 1603).
Anne (born 1665, died 1714)
Queen of England, 1702-14.
- Last Stuart to rule Britain; England and Scotland were united under her reign in 1707
Victoria (born 1819, died 1901)
Queen of Great Britain, 1837-1901, and Empress of India 1877-1901.
- Her sixty-four-year reign is the longest in English history
Elizabeth I (born 1533, died 1603)
Queen of England and Ireland, 1558-1603.
- Known for establishing England as a world power, including promoting overseas trade and financing the first English theatres
Mary I (born 1516, died 1558)
Queen of England and Ireland, 1553-8.
- Nicknamed ''''Bloody Mary'''' for her brutality against protestants and heretics
Mary II (born 1662, died 1694)
Queen of England, Ireland and Scotland, 1689-94.
- Invited by English nobles to assume the crown with her husband, William of Orange, to stop James II from reestablishing Roman Catholicism in England
Elizabeth II (born 1926)
Queen of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 1952-.
- Despite many scandals involving her family, Elizabeth herself has retained the favor and respect of her people
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